Ways of transmission

How is HIV transmitted?

3 main routes of HIV transmission:

  • Unprotected sexual intercourse (without condoms) with a person who is infected HIV-infection;

  • Exposure to infected blood – though blood transfusions, injections or other invasive procedures. Most occurs as a result of the use of the of contaminated syringes/needles during injecting drug use;

  • Transmission from an HIV-positive mother to her child during pregnancy, during delivery or as a result of breastfeeding.

How is HIV transmitted?

Overwhelming evidence indicates that you cannot become infected by:

  • Shaking hands, hugging or kissing;

  • Coughing or sneezing;

  • Sharing food, eating or drinking utensils;

  • Using toilets or showers;

  • Using public swimming pools;

  • Getting a mosquito or insect bite;

  • Working, socializing, or living side by side with HIV-positive people.


Prevention on transmission


How to prevent HIV?

Preventing Sexual Transmission – ABC formula.

  • Abstinence from sexual contacts – the best way to avoid HIV;

  • Be faithful to your sexual partner;

  • Condom use – male & female condoms are both effective in preventing HIV & other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Hepatitis B & C, gonorrhoea, syphilis, etc. Untreated STIs significantly increase the risk of HIV transmission. Early diagnosis & treatment of STIs is essential.

How to prevent HIV?

Prevention during injections.

  • Use only new or sterilized needles and syringes during any type of injection;

  • No drugs, No injecting drugs, If used use single syringes & needles only – NO SHARING OF SYRINGES OR NEEDLES;


How to prevent HIV?

Prevention of mother to child transmission.

  • Georgia as most countries globally ensures that all pregnant women have access to voluntary counseling & testing on HIV with relevant treatment and care if required;

  • If tested positive risk of HIV transmission from mother to child can be reduced to as low as 2% by:

    • Antiretroviral treatment;

    • Selective Caesarean Section;

    • Appropriate counselling on Breastfeeding.