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Transmission Transmission

Ways of transmission


Ways of transmission

How is HIV transmitted?

3 main routes of HIV transmission:

Unprotected sexual intercourse (without condoms) with a person who is infected HIV-infection;

Exposure to infected blood – though blood transfusions, injections or other invasive procedures. Most occurs as a result of the use of the of contaminated syringes/needles during injecting drug use;

Transmission from an HIV-positive mother to her child during pregnancy, during delivery or as a result of breastfeeding.


How is HIV transmitted?

Overwhelming evidence indicates that you cannot become infected by:

Shaking hands, hugging or kissing;

Coughing or sneezing;

Sharing food, eating or drinking utensils;

Using toilets or showers;

Using public swimming pools;

Getting a mosquito or insect bite;

Working, socializing, or living side by side with HIV-positive people.



Prevention on transmission

How to prevent HIV?

Preventing Sexual Transmission – ABC formula.

Abstinence from sexual contacts – the best way to avoid HIV;

Be faithful to your sexual partner;

Condom use – male & female condoms are both effective in preventing HIV & other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Hepatitis B & C, gonorrhoea, syphilis, etc. Untreated STIs significantly increase the risk of HIV transmission. Early diagnosis & treatment of STIs is essential.

How to prevent HIV?

Prevention during injections.

Use only new or sterilized needles and syringes during any type of injection;

No drugs, No injecting drugs, If used use single syringes & needles only – NO SHARING OF SYRINGES OR NEEDLES;

How to prevent HIV?

Prevention of mother to child transmission.

Georgia as most countries globally ensures that all pregnant women have access to voluntary counseling & testing on HIV with relevant treatment and care if required;

If tested positive risk of HIV transmission from mother to child can be reduced to as low as 2% by:

Antiretroviral treatment;

Selective Caesarean Section;

Appropriate counselling on Breastfeeding.


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